Opioids are prescribed for moderate to severe pain disorders; however, there are contraindications and side effects that are common to all opioids. The investigators hypothesize using regional anesthetic during sinus surgery will reduce surgical pain, therefore decreasing the need for post-operative opioid medication. The primary of objective is to determine if a long-acting local regional anesthetic applied during a surgery will reduce post-operative oral opioid usage.



Eligible Ages
Over 18 Years
Eligible Genders
Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion Criteria

  • Age 18 years or older
  • Able to sign informed consent form
  • Able to comply with all study procedures and availability for the duration of the study
  • Able to speak English
  • Diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis
  • Scheduled to receive functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) at UAB

Exclusion Criteria

  • Current use of opioid medication
  • Known allergic reactions to components of the study intervention
  • History of IV drug use or abuse
  • History of opioid abuse
  • History of chronic pain disorder
  • Treatment with another investigational drug or other intervention within 30 days

Study Design

Phase 4
Study Type
Intervention Model
Parallel Assignment
Primary Purpose
Supportive Care
Single (Participant)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Treatment Group
20 mL of 1.3% bupivacaine with 2 mg dexamethasone injected locally in the location for sensory nerves of the sinus cavities and face during the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) procedure
  • Drug: Bupivacaine
    20 mL of 1.3% bupivacaine
    Other names:
    • Marcaine
  • Drug: Dexamethasone
    2 mg dexamethasone
    Other names:
    • Ozurdex
No Intervention
Control Group
No regional anesthetic of any kind during the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) procedure

Recruiting Locations

University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama 35233
Norma Miller, RN

More Details

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Study Contact

Norma Miller, RN
(205) 975-6169

Detailed Description

Opioid analgesics are prescribed for moderate to severe acute pain; however, there are contraindications, cautions, and side effects that are common with all opioids. Dependence and tolerance are also likely with regular opioid use, resulting in the current nationwide opioid epidemic. In Alabama alone, there were 343 opioid-related overdose deaths in 2016, 124 of which were related to prescription opioids. Alabama providers have the highest prescribing rate in the country, nearly twice the national rate, per the NIH/NIDA website. In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) released prescribing guidelines relating to chronic pain, and in 2018 Alabama's Blue Cross/Blue Shield insurance group limited the supply of opioids allowed to their members to 7 days.

There is currently no clinical guideline for prescribing post operative opioid medications for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). A 2018 survey documenting prescribing patterns by 168 members of the American Rhinologic Society found that most physicians who participated prescribed, on average, 27 opioid pain pills for patients after surgery. Prior studies have been performed to help decrease the pain patient's feel after sinus surgery. Haytoglu in 2016 revealed that adding non-absorbable sinus packs loaded with local anesthetics such as bupivacaine achieved less pain values and improved patient satisfaction scores.

Given this current data the investigators believe injecting patients with a long acting analgesic during the procedure will help reduce post-operative pain. If the investigators can decrease the amount of pain patients have in the post-operative period, they can theoretically decrease the number of opioid pain pills prescribed. The investigators plan to also track the number of opioid pills consumed by patients in the post-operative period to obtain a somewhat uniform prescribing pattern within surgeons.


Study information shown on this site is derived from ClinicalTrials.gov (a public registry operated by the National Institutes of Health). The listing of studies provided is not certain to be all studies for which you might be eligible. Furthermore, study eligibility requirements can be difficult to understand and may change over time, so it is wise to speak with your medical care provider and individual research study teams when making decisions related to participation.