The aim of this study is to determine if fluorescence with or without indocyanine green can facilitate safe and accurate thyroid and parathyroid surgery.



Eligible Ages
Over 19 Years
Eligible Genders
Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion Criteria

  • age greater than 18 years old

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients with iodine or shellfish allergies would be excluded. - Patients with allergy to indocyanine green. - Pregnancy

Study Design

Phase 4
Study Type
Intervention Model
Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description
This is already a pre-approved drug by FDA.
Primary Purpose
None (Open Label)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Parathyroid patients
patients who require parathyroid identification and preservation during parathyroid surgery maneuver
  • Drug: Indocyanine green
    ICG Administration: All enrolled patients with scheduled thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy will receive a standard cervical incision that afford access to either side of neck. Following sufficient exposure of thyroid, 25 mg of indocyanine green (ICG), reconstituted in 10 ml of sterile water, will be administered intravenously. A dosage of 1 ml of this solution will be injected into a peripheral IV line, followed by a 5 ml flush of normal saline to ensure the propagation of the dye within the vascular compartment.
  • Device: SPY Portable Handheld Imaging
    Fluorescent Imaging: Approximately 30 seconds post-administration, the parathyroid glands are expected to exhibit fluorescence under near-infrared imaging. The emitted fluorescence is anticipated to persist for approximately 20 minutes, allowing ample time for intraoperative evaluation of parathyroid viability and perfusion
    Other names:
    • SPY-PHI

Recruiting Locations

UAB Callahan Eye
Birmingham, Alabama 35233
Zhixing Song, MD

More Details

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Study Contact

Zhixing Song, MD

Detailed Description

The accurate identification of the parathyroid gland is a crucial aspect of thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Failing to recognize the parathyroid gland during thyroidectomy can result in the inadvertent removal of the gland, leading to postoperative hypocalcemia. On the other hand, during parathyroidectomy, there is a risk of mistaking other structures, such as lymph nodes, for parathyroid adenomas, which can leave the patient without a cure. Currently UAB employs intraoperative PTH or radioactive isotope techniques in conjunction with surgeon judgment. However, both methods have limitations, including being time-consuming, posing logistical challenges, and not providing feedback before gland removal. Parathyroid fluorescence is a relatively new technology. It was initially discovered that the parathyroid gland emits fluorescence, which distinguishes it from the surrounding tissues. Additionally, indocyanine green dye is readily taken up by the parathyroid gland, making its detection easy to the naked eye. Research has demonstrated that parathyroid fluorescence, with or without indocyanine green, is not only safe but also helps reduce postoperative hypocalcemia and locate lesions in patients with imaging-negative parathyroid adenomas. However, the current use of parathyroid fluorescence is not standardized, and further studies are needed to explore its clinical utility in terms of cure rates and postoperative complications.


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